Rosmarinic acid, also known as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylactic acid, is a natural phenolic compound found in several plant species, including rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), basil (Ocimum basilicum), and sage (Salvia officinalis). It has gained significant attention in recent years due to its potential health benefits, particularly as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. In this article, we will provide an overview of Rosmarinic acid, including its chemical properties, potential health benefits, side effects, dosing information, and safety considerations.
Chemical name: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid Molecular formula: C18H16O8 Formula weight: 360.32 g/mol CAS No.: 20283-92-5
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Synonyms: 3,4-Dihydrocaffeic acid; Labiatae acid.
Rosmarinic acid has been shown to have potential therapeutic benefits in the following areas:
- Antioxidant: Rosmarinic acid can scavenge free radicals and protect against oxidative damage to cells and tissues.
- Anti-inflammatory: Rosmarinic acid exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes.
- Neuroprotection: Rosmarinic acid may have neuroprotective effects by promoting neural cell survival and growth and protecting against oxidative stress and inflammation.
- Cancer Prevention: Rosmarinic acid can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation by inducing apoptosis (cell death) in cancer cells and inhibiting angiogenesis (blood vessel formation).
- Cardiovascular Health: Rosmarinic acid may have cardioprotective effects by reducing inflammation and lipid peroxidation and improving lipid metabolism.
- Skin Health: Rosmarinic acid may improve skin health by reducing inflammation, protecting against UV-induced damage, and inhibiting melanin synthesis.
- Allergy Relief: Rosmarinic acid may help alleviate symptoms of allergies by reducing inflammation and suppressing immune activation.
- Anti-viral: Rosmarinic acid may have antiviral properties by inhibiting viral replication and entry.
- Herpes Simplex Virus: Rosmarinic acid may be effective in treating herpes simplex virus by inhibiting viral replication and promoting immune function.
- Weight Loss: Rosmarinic acid may have potential in promoting weight loss by increasing energy expenditure and reducing adipocyte differentiation.
- Diabetes Management: Rosmarinic acid may have potential in regulating blood sugar levels and improving insulin sensitivity.
- Anxiety and Depression: Rosmarinic acid may have potential in treating anxiety and depression by modulating neurotransmitter signaling and reducing oxidative stress.
The exact mechanisms by which Rosmarinic acid exerts its health benefits are not fully understood but appear to be related to its ability to reduce inflammation, protect against oxidative stress, and modulate various signaling pathways involved in cellular metabolism and growth. Rosmarinic acid can also scavenge free radicals and inhibit enzymatic activity involved in tumor growth and proliferation.
Rosmarinic acid is generally considered safe when used in appropriate doses. However, there is limited research on its long-term safety and potential interactions with medications. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid using Rosmarinic acid unless directed by a healthcare provider.
Rosmarinic acid is generally well-tolerated, and side effects are rare. However, some people may experience mild gastrointestinal discomfort or allergic reactions when using products containing Rosmarinic acid.
There is no established recommended dose of Rosmarinic acid for supplementation, and optimal dosing may vary depending on the individual's age, health status, and reasons for use. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.
Rosmarinic acid is a natural compound with potential therapeutic properties, particularly as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Its ability to reduce inflammation, protect against oxidative stress, and modulate various signaling pathways makes it a promising ingredient in supplements and skincare products. However, further research is needed to establish its long-term safety and efficacy. Overall, Rosmarinic acid shows promise as a natural remedy for various health conditions, but caution is necessary when using products containing this compound.